**Net Run Rate** (**NRR**) is a statistical method used in analysing teamwork and/or performance in the sport of cricket. It is the most commonly used method of ranking teams with equal points in league competitions, analogous to in association football.

The NRR in a single game is the runs per that a team scores, minus the average runs per over that is scored against them. The NRR in a tournament is the average runs per over that a team scores across the whole tournament, minus the average runs per over that is scored against them across the whole tournament. This is the same as the of the run rates scored in each match (weighted by the lengths of the innings batted compared to the other innings batted), minus the weighted average of the run rates conceded in each match (weighted by the lengths of the innings bowled compared to the other innings bowled). This is *not* usually the same as the total or average of the NRRs from the individual matches in the tournament.

A positive NRR means a team is scoring faster than its opposition overall, while a negative NRR means a team is scoring slower than the teams it has come up against. It is therefore desirable for the NRR to be as high as possible.

NRR has been criticised as hard to understand, and 'often misunderstood'. Also it doesn't accurately reflect true margins of victory, as it measures how quickly teams score and concede runs, but takes no account of wickets taken or lost, so a team with a narrow victory can have a higher NRR than a team with a comfortable victory. This means a team which progresses in a tournament at the expense of another team, due to a higher NRR, may not have actually had better victories.

## Step by step explanation

A team's (RR), or runs per over (RPO), is the average number of runs scored per over by the whole team in the whole innings (or the whole innings so far), i.e. .

So if a team scores 250 runs off 50 overs then their RR is . Note that as an over is made up of six balls, each ball is 1/6 of an over, despite being normally written in cricket's notation as .1 of an over. So if they got that same score off 47.5 overs, their RR would be .

The concept of net run rate involves the opponents' run rate from the team's run rate, i.e. .

For two teams which have just played, the winning side will have a positive Match NRR, and the losing side will have the of this (i.e. the Match NRRs will be , summing to zero). A single match's NRR is used very rarely, perhaps only after a team has played one match in a tournament, so their tournament NRR is the same as the match NRR.

Usually, runs and overs are summed together throughout a season to compare teams in a league table. A team's overall NRR for a tournament is not defined as the sum or average of the NRR's from the individual matches, but as:

The exceptions to this are:

- If a team is
**bowled out**, the calculations don't use the number of overs actually bowled, but the full quota of overs to which the team was entitled (e.g. 50 overs for a One Day International, and 20 overs for a Twenty20 match). - If a match is
**interrupted**, revised targets are set, and a result is subsequently achieved, the revised targets and revised overs are used for Team 1's innings (i.e. 1 run less than the final Target Score for Team 2, off the total number of overs allocated to Team 2), and the actual runs scored and overs used by Team 2 are used for Team 2's innings (as normal). - If a match is
**abandoned as a No Result**, none of the runs scored or overs bowled count towards this calculation. - If a match is
**abandoned but a result decided**by retrospectively applying Duckworth-Lewis, the number of overs assigned to each team for this calculation is the number of overs actually faced by Team 2. Team 1 is credited with Team 2's Par Score (the number of runs they would need to have reached from this number of overs and wickets lost if they were going to match Team 1's score), and the actual runs scored are used by Team 2 for Team 2's innings.

## Scenarios

All scenarios assume rules with 50 overs per side.

### 1. Side that bats first wins

- Team A bat first and score 287–6 off their full quota of 50 overs. Team A's Run Rate is .
- Team B fail in their run chase, scoring 243–8 in their 50 overs. Team B's Run Rate is .
- Team A's NRR for this game is 5.74 − 4.86 = 0.88. If this was the first game of the season, their NRR for the league table would be +0.88.
- Team B's NRR for this game is 4.86 − 5.74 = −0.88. If this was the first game of the season, their NRR for the league table would be −0.88.

### 2. Side that bats second wins

- Team A bat first and score 265–8 off their full quota of 50 overs. Team A's Run Rate is .
- Team B successfully chase, getting their winning runs with a four with 2.4 of the 50 overs remaining, leaving them on 267–5. Team B faced 47.2 overs, so their Run Rate is .
- Assuming that Team A and Team B had previously played as in the game in scenario one, the new tournament NRR for Team A would be: .

### 3. Side that bats first is bowled out, side batting second wins

- Team A bat first and are bowled out for 127 off 25.4 overs. Despite their run rate for the balls they faced being 127 / 25.667 = 4.95, because they were bowled out the entire 50 overs are added to their total overs faced tally for the tournament, and Team B are credited with having bowled 50 overs.
- Team B reach the target off 30.5 overs, ending with 128–4. Team B actually scored at a slower pace (128/30.833 = 4.15), however they managed to protect their wickets and win. Thus, only the 30.833 overs are added to the seasonal tally.
- Team A's NRR for this game is (127/50) − (128/30.833) = −1.61.
- Team B's NRR for this game is (128/30.833) − (127/50) = +1.61.
- If 25.667 had been used for Team A's overs total rather than 50, Team A would have finished the match with a positive match NRR, and improved tournament NRR, despite losing. (Similarly Team B with a worsened NRR, despite winning.)

### 4. Side that bats second is bowled out, side batting first therefore wins

- Team A bat first and set a formidable 295–5 off their complement of 50 overs. Therefore, for the tournament NRR calculations, 295 runs and 50 overs are added to Team A's runs scored/overs faced tally and Team B's runs conceded/overs bowled tally.
- Team B never get close, being bowled out for 116 off 35.4 overs. Therefore, as they were bowled out, 116 runs and 50 overs are added to Team A's runs conceded/overs bowled tally and Team B's runs scored/overs faced tally.

### 5. Both sides are bowled out, side batting first therefore wins

- Team A bat first, and manage 117 off 24 overs on a difficult playing surface. Team B fall agonizingly short, reaching 112 off 23.3 overs.
- In this case, both teams get 50 overs both faced and bowled in the overs column for the season, just as in example 1.

### 6. The game ends in a tie

- Runs and overs are added as in the examples above, with teams bowled out being credited with their full quota of overs. Thus, the match NRR will always be zero for both teams.

### 7. Interrupted game with revised D/L target

- In matches where revised targets are set due to interruptions which reduce the number of overs bowled, those revised targets and revised overs are used to calculate the NRR for both teams.
- For example, Team A are dismissed for 165 in 33.5 overs. Team B progresses to 120–0, but play is halted after 18 overs due to rain.
- Six overs are lost, and the target is reset to 150, which Team B reach comfortably after 26.2 overs.
- Because the target was revised to 150 runs from 44 overs, Team A's total is reset to 149 from 44 overs, thus their RR . Team B's RR, however, is computed as normal: .
- Computing the match NRR for Team A gives us 3.39 – 5.70 = –2.31. Team B's NRR is: 5.70 – 3.39 = +2.31.

### 8. Abandoned game recorded as No Result

- Abandoned games are not considered, whatever the stage of the game at stoppage may be, and the scores in such games are immaterial to NRR calculations.

### 9. Abandoned game with retrospective D/L result

- Team A score 254 runs from their 50 overs. Team B have scored 172–4 from 30 overs when the match is abandoned.
- According to , 6 wickets and 20 overs in hand equates to 44.6% of resources, so Team B has used 55.4% of its resources, so their Par Score is 254 x 55.4% = 140.716 runs. As they are ahead of this, they are declared the winner.
- Team A's RR .
- Team B's RR .

## Net Run Rate within a tournament

### Basic example

Most of the time, in limited overs cricket tournaments, there are round-robin groups among several teams, where each team plays all of the others. Just as explained in the scenarios above, the NRR is not the average of the NRRs of all the matches played, it is calculated considering the overall rate at which runs are scored for and against, within the whole group.

Let's take as an example South Africa's net run rate in the .

**FOR**

South Africa scored:

- Against India, 254 runs (for 6 wkts) from 47.2 overs.
- Against Sri Lanka, 199 runs (for 9 wkts) from 50 overs.
- Against England, 225 runs (for 7 wkts) from 50 overs.
- Against Kenya, 153 runs (for 3 wkts) from 41 overs.
- Against Zimbabwe, 185 runs (all out) from 47.2 overs.

In the case of Zimbabwe, because South Africa were all out before their allotted 50 overs expired, the run rate is calculated as if they had scored their runs over the full 50 overs. Therefore, across the five games, South Africa scored 1016 runs in a total of 238 overs and 2 balls (i.e. 238.333 overs), an average run rate of 1016/238.333 = 4.263.

**AGAINST**

Teams opposing South Africa scored:

- India, 253 (for 5 wkts) from 50 overs.
- Sri Lanka, 110 (all out) from 35.2 overs.
- England, 103 (all out) from 41 overs.
- Kenya, 152 (all out) from 44.3 overs.
- Zimbabwe, 233 (for 6 wkts) from 50 overs.

Again, with Sri Lanka, England and Kenya counting as the full 50 overs as they were all out, the run rate scored against South Africa across the five games is calculated on the basis of 851 runs in a total of 250 overs, an average run rate of 851/250 = 3.404.

**NET RUN RATE**

South Africa's final tournament NRR is therefore 4.263 − 3.404 = +0.859.

### Change in NRR through a tournament

**After match one**

In the above example of South Africa at the 1999 World Cup, after their first match their tournament NRR was

As Run Rate = Runs scored/Overs faced, the runs scored by and against South Africa in each innings can be replaced in this formula by Run Rate x Overs faced. They scored 254 runs from 47.33 overs, a rate of 5.37 runs per over. Therefore, the total of 254 runs can be replaced by 5.37 runs per over x 47.33 overs. Similarly, the total of 253 runs conceded can be replaced by 5.06 runs per over x 50 overs:

**After match two**

After their second match, tournament NRR was which is the same as

Making the same replacements for 254 and 253 as before, and replacing 199 runs scored in match two with 3.98 runs per over x 50 overs, and 110 runs conceded in match two with 2.20 runs per over x 50 overs, this becomes:

**After match three**

After their third match, tournament NRR was i.e.

Making the same replacements for 254, 253, 199 and 110 as before, and replacing 225 runs scored in match three with 4.50 runs per over x 50 overs, and 103 runs conceded in match three with 2.06 runs per over x 50 overs, this becomes:

**Tournament NRR as a weighted average**

Therefore, tournament NRR can alternatively be thought of as the of the run rates scored in each match (weighted by the lengths of the innings batted compared to the other innings batted), minus the weighted average of the run rates conceded in each match (weighted by the lengths of the innings bowled compared to the other innings bowled). Each time another match is played, the weights of the previous innings reduce, and so the contributions of the previous innings to overall NRR reduce.

For example, the 5.37 run rate achieved in match one had 100% weighting after match one, 48.6% weighting after match two, and 32.1% weighting after match three.

## Criticisms

### NRR doesn't accurately reflect margins of victory, as it takes no account of wickets lost

In the language of , teams have two resources with which to score runs − overs and wickets. However, NRR takes into account only one of these − overs faced; it takes no account of wickets lost. Therefore, a team regarded as having a narrow victory can have a higher NRR than a team regarded as having a comfortable victory. For example, a team which just manages to win a close game with many overs to spare but with only one wicket in hand is likely to have a higher NRR than a team which paces itself to win comfortably with only a few overs in hand but many wickets.

For example, in the :

- New Zealand just beat Sri Lanka by bowling them out for 138, then reaching 139–9 from 36.3 overs, giving them match NRR = (139/36.5) − (138/50) =
**1.05**. - Sri Lanka comfortably beat England by restricting them to 293–7 from 50 overs, then reaching 297–3 from 47.1 overs, giving them match NRR = (297/47.167) − (293/50) =
**0.44**. - England comfortably beat Australia by 48 runs by scoring 269–6 in 50 overs, then restricting Australia to 221–9 in 50 overs, giving them match NRR = (269/50) − (221/50) =
**0.96**.

This fact can encourage a team to play in an overly aggressive manner, to maximise NRR by batting with next to no regard for preserving wickets, when the required run rate alone seems low, which can then put the team in danger of losing.

### Tournament NRR calculation

**A team's batted and bowled overs in a match count differently to tournament NRR**

All overs batted in a tournament are given equal weighting when finding tournament NRR, and all overs bowled in a tournament are also given equal weighting. However, when the total number of overs batted is different from the total number of overs bowled, the weight for each over batted is different from the weight for each over bowled. This means that batted overs and bowled overs in the same match count differently towards tournament NRR.

For example, in the , as New Zealand had batted 6 overs and bowled 7 overs against Scotland, the runs they scored in each of the 20 overs batted against South Africa contributed 1/26th to their tournament NRR, while the runs conceded in each of the 20 overs bowled against South Africa contributed only 1/27th. In fact, the effect of the higher weight for the batting overs was so strong that despite scoring fewer runs than South Africa from the same number of overs, and hence having a negative match NRR and losing the match, the net contribution of this match to New Zealand's tournament NRR was actually positive (127/26 − 128/27 is positive).

**Each over in a match counts differently for the two teams**

Moreover, if two teams in a tournament have different total numbers of overs batted or bowled, then each innings in the match(es) between them will contribute differently towards their tournament NRRs. For example, in the , South Africa batted for 40 overs in total in their two matches, so their score of 128 from 20 overs against New Zealand contributed 128/40 = 3.20 to their tournament NRR, whereas New Zealand bowled for 27 overs in total in their two matches, so South Africa's score of 128 from 20 overs against them contributed −128/27 = −4.74 to New Zealand's tournament NRR.

As a team's NRR measures how many more runs it scores per over than it concedes, the NRRs of all the teams in a league table should . However, because of this fact of each innings usually counting differently to the two teams' tournament NRRs, this rarely happens. If the sum is positive, this implies that overall more runs were scored per over than were conceded, which is obviously impossible. (And if the sum is negative that less were scored than conceded). The teams' tournament NRRs will all sum to zero if all the teams have played one or zero matches, or if every innings had exactly the same number of overs. This happens sometimes with small league tables. For example, Group B in the featured three matches. Five of the six innings had the full complement of 20 overs, and in the sixth innings the team was bowled out, which counts as the full complement of 20 overs.

**The same score by two teams counts differently to tournament NRR**

If two teams make the same score from the same number of overs (either in the same match or different matches), this will count differently to their respective tournament NRR's if they have different total numbers of overs batted across the whole tournament. For example, in the , Australia and Zimbabwe each scored 138 from 20 overs in one of their matches. However, as Australia batted for 14.5 overs in their other match, this contributed 138/34.833 = 3.96 to their tournament NRR, whereas as Zimbabwe batted for 19.5 overs in their other match, this contributed 138/39.833 = 3.46 to their tournament NRR.

This is also the case if two teams concede the same score in the same match or different matches, but have different total numbers of overs bowled in the tournament.

**Tournament NRR can penalise teams which win batting second rather than first**

If one team, batting first, scores 250 from their 50 overs, and another team, batting second, is set a target of 100 which it easily reaches in 20 overs, then both sides have a batting run rate of 5. Therefore, both sides will have the same match NRR, all else being equal, and should have the same contribution to tournament NRR. However, when it comes to calculating tournament NRR, the first team's innings will count more heavily than the second team's as it was longer, even though the second team achieved the same run rate and could potentially have reached the same total if it could have completed its 50 overs.

### NRR may be manipulated

A team may choose to artificially reduce their margin of victory, as measured by NRR, to gain an additional advantage by not disadvantaging their opponent too much. For example, in the final round of matches in the , Australia needed to beat West Indies to progress to the Super Six stage, but wanted to carry West Indies through with them to the Super Six, rather than New Zealand. This is because Australia would then have the additional points in the Super Six stage from beating West Indies in the group stage, whereas they had lost to New Zealand in the group stage. It was therefore to Australia's advantage to reduce their scoring rate and reduce their margin of victory, as measured by NRR, to minimise the negative impact of the match on West Indies' NRR, and therefore maximise West Indies' chance of going through with them.

However, this is also likely to be a possibility with alternatives to NRR.

This is similar to the way a narrow victory for one side in a game of may enable both sides to progress to the next stage, e.g. .

### NRR can be hard to understand

NRR can be hard to understand, and is 'often misunderstood'. For example, Tournament NRR has been incorrectly explained as the sum of the NRRs from each match.

## Alternatives to NRR

A number of alternatives or modifications to NRR have been suggested.

### Duckworth−Lewis

Use Tournament NRR as present, but when a side batting second successfully completes the run chase, use the to predict how many runs they would have scored with a full innings. This means the calculation would be done on the basis of all innings being complete, and so would remove the criticisms of NRR penalising teams which bat second, and NRR not taking into account wickets lost. However, this does nothing to alter the fact that when matches are rain-affected, different matches and even two complete innings in one match, can be different lengths long (in terms of overs), and so does nothing about some of the other criticisms above.

Therefore, alternatively, use Duckworth−Lewis to predict the 50-over total for *every* innings less than this, even, for example, if a match is reduced to 40 overs each, and a side completes their 40 overs. This would make every innings in the tournament the same length, so would remove all the criticisms above. However, a side will bat differently (less conservatively) in a 40-over innings compared to a 50-over innings, and so it is quite unfair to use their 40-over total to predict how many runs they could have scored in 50 overs.

Either way, using Duckworth−Lewis would mean relying on subjective modelling predictions, which are opinions, rather than actual performances, which are facts.

### Average of the match NRRs

Calculate tournament NRR as the total or average of the individual match NRRs. This would mean all matches have equal weighting, no matter how long they were, (rather than all batted overs across the tournament having equal weighting, and all bowled overs across the tournament having equal weighting). This would remove the criticisms under the 'Tournament NRR calculation' subheading above. For example, the different teams' tournament NRRs would always sum to zero if the total of the individual match NRRs were used, or if the average of the individual match NRRs were used and all teams had played the same number of games.

An example of when using this would have made a difference was the . New Zealand and West Indies finished level on points. Having scored a total of 723 runs from 201 overs, and conceded 746 runs from 240.4 overs, West Indies' tournament NRR was (723/201) − (746/240.6667) = **0.50**. However, New Zealand had scored 817 runs from 196.1 overs, and conceded 877 runs from 244.2 overs, so their tournament NRR was (817/196.167) − (877/244.333) = **0.58**. Therefore, New Zealand progressed to the Super Six stage and West Indies were eliminated. However, with individual match NRRs of −0.540, 0.295, 0.444, 5.525 and −0.530, the West Indies' average match NRR was **1.04**, and with individual match NRRs of 1.225, 0.461, −0.444, −1.240 and 4.477, New Zealand's average match NRR was **0.90**. Therefore, West Indies' average NRR was better than New Zealand's.

### Ball difference

Ball difference (BD) is the number of balls remaining at the point of victory. For a team winning batting second, BD would be the number of balls remaining. For a team winning having batted first, BD would be the number of balls between the precise delivery when the beaten team was outscored and the end of their innings (either the end of the overs or until the team were all out). For the losing team, BD is the negative of the winning team's BD.

However, like the current NRR calculation, BD takes no account of wickets lost, so can produce similarly unjust results. In the example above from the 2013 Champions Trophy Group A, New Zealand's narrow victory over Sri Lanka would have a BD of +81, whereas Sri Lanka's comfortable victory over England would have a BD of only +17.

Also, if a match is affected by the weather, a side batting first can win having scored fewer runs, if Duckworth-Lewis increases the target for the team batting second, and they overtake the first team's score, but fail to reach the target. It's not clear what BD would be in this scenario.

### Head-to-head record or stage a play-off match

Split teams level on points using the results from the matches between them. However, this unfairly increases the importance of that one match and reduces the importance of other matches in the league, when all matches in a league should be of equal value − the team with the better head-to-head record will have a worse record against other teams. Also, the head-to-head record will not decide it if the game between them was a No result, or if they played each other twice, and won one game each.

Alternatively, stage a play-off match between the teams level on points. However, organising this at very short notice may be difficult, or the teams may be in the middle of a league table with no promotion or relegation or progression at stake, so there may be no appetite for a play-off match.

These two methods both also run into difficulties when three or more teams are level on points.

## References

- ICC Playing Handbook 2013/14 Paragraph 21.9.2
- Net Run Rate explained espncricinfo
- Net run rate (NRR) about.com
- Why net run rate doesn't work espncricinfo
- NZ stutter to win after dominant bowling espncricinfo
- Australia pull fast one with go-slow
- Rules bigbash.com.au
- Net Run Rate alternative SportTaco.com
- Ball difference
- Ball difference
- Test Match Sofa A simple alternative to Net Run Rate

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Net Run Rate NRR is a statistical method used in analysing teamwork and or performance in the sport of cricket It is the most commonly used method of ranking teams with equal points in league competitions analogous to in association football ම ම ල ප ය පර වර තනය කළ ය ත ය කර ණ කර ම ම ල ප ය ස හල භ ෂ වට පර වර තනය ක ර ම න ද යකවන න The NRR in a single game is the runs per that a team scores minus the average runs per over that is scored against them The NRR in a tournament is the average runs per over that a team scores across the whole tournament minus the average runs per over that is scored against them across the whole tournament This is the same as the of the run rates scored in each match weighted by the lengths of the innings batted compared to the other innings batted minus the weighted average of the run rates conceded in each match weighted by the lengths of the innings bowled compared to the other innings bowled This is not usually the same as the total or average of the NRRs from the individual matches in the tournament A positive NRR means a team is scoring faster than its opposition overall while a negative NRR means a team is scoring slower than the teams it has come up against It is therefore desirable for the NRR to be as high as possible NRR has been criticised as hard to understand and often misunderstood Also it doesn t accurately reflect true margins of victory as it measures how quickly teams score and concede runs but takes no account of wickets taken or lost so a team with a narrow victory can have a higher NRR than a team with a comfortable victory This means a team which progresses in a tournament at the expense of another team due to a higher NRR may not have actually had better victories Step by step explanationA team s RR or runs per over RPO is the average number of runs scored per over by the whole team in the whole innings or the whole innings so far i e run rate total runs scoredtotal overs faced displaystyle text run rate frac text total runs scored text total overs faced So if a team scores 250 runs off 50 overs then their RR is 25050 5 displaystyle frac 250 50 5 Note that as an over is made up of six balls each ball is 1 6 of an over despite being normally written in cricket s notation as 1 of an over So if they got that same score off 47 5 overs their RR would be 2504756 5 23 displaystyle frac 250 47 frac 5 6 5 23 The concept of net run rate involves the opponents run rate from the team s run rate i e match net run rate total runs scoredtotal overs faced total runs conceded total overs bowled displaystyle text match net run rate frac text total runs scored text total overs faced frac text total runs conceded text total overs bowled For two teams which have just played the winning side will have a positive Match NRR and the losing side will have the of this i e the Match NRRs will be summing to zero A single match s NRR is used very rarely perhaps only after a team has played one match in a tournament so their tournament NRR is the same as the match NRR Usually runs and overs are summed together throughout a season to compare teams in a league table A team s overall NRR for a tournament is not defined as the sum or average of the NRR s from the individual matches but as tournament net run rate total runs scored in all matchestotal overs faced in all matches total runs conceded in all matchestotal overs bowled in all matches displaystyle text tournament net run rate frac text total runs scored in all matches text total overs faced in all matches frac text total runs conceded in all matches text total overs bowled in all matches The exceptions to this are If a team is bowled out the calculations don t use the number of overs actually bowled but the full quota of overs to which the team was entitled e g 50 overs for a One Day International and 20 overs for a Twenty20 match If a match is interrupted revised targets are set and a result is subsequently achieved the revised targets and revised overs are used for Team 1 s innings i e 1 run less than the final Target Score for Team 2 off the total number of overs allocated to Team 2 and the actual runs scored and overs used by Team 2 are used for Team 2 s innings as normal If a match is abandoned as a No Result none of the runs scored or overs bowled count towards this calculation If a match is abandoned but a result decided by retrospectively applying Duckworth Lewis the number of overs assigned to each team for this calculation is the number of overs actually faced by Team 2 Team 1 is credited with Team 2 s Par Score the number of runs they would need to have reached from this number of overs and wickets lost if they were going to match Team 1 s score and the actual runs scored are used by Team 2 for Team 2 s innings ScenariosAll scenarios assume rules with 50 overs per side 1 Side that bats first wins Team A bat first and score 287 6 off their full quota of 50 overs Team A s Run Rate is 28750 5 74 displaystyle frac 287 50 5 74 Team B fail in their run chase scoring 243 8 in their 50 overs Team B s Run Rate is 24350 4 86 displaystyle frac 243 50 4 86 Team A s NRR for this game is 5 74 4 86 0 88 If this was the first game of the season their NRR for the league table would be 0 88 Team B s NRR for this game is 4 86 5 74 0 88 If this was the first game of the season their NRR for the league table would be 0 88 2 Side that bats second wins Team A bat first and score 265 8 off their full quota of 50 overs Team A s Run Rate is 26550 5 30 displaystyle frac 265 50 5 30 Team B successfully chase getting their winning runs with a four with 2 4 of the 50 overs remaining leaving them on 267 5 Team B faced 47 2 overs so their Run Rate is 2674726 5 64 displaystyle frac 267 47 frac 2 6 5 64 Assuming that Team A and Team B had previously played as in the game in scenario one the new tournament NRR for Team A would be 287 26550 50 243 26750 4726 552100 5109726 5 52 5 24 0 28 displaystyle frac 287 265 50 50 frac 243 267 50 47 frac 2 6 frac 552 100 frac 510 97 frac 2 6 5 52 5 24 0 28 3 Side that bats first is bowled out side batting second wins Team A bat first and are bowled out for 127 off 25 4 overs Despite their run rate for the balls they faced being 127 25 667 4 95 because they were bowled out the entire 50 overs are added to their total overs faced tally for the tournament and Team B are credited with having bowled 50 overs Team B reach the target off 30 5 overs ending with 128 4 Team B actually scored at a slower pace 128 30 833 4 15 however they managed to protect their wickets and win Thus only the 30 833 overs are added to the seasonal tally Team A s NRR for this game is 127 50 128 30 833 1 61 Team B s NRR for this game is 128 30 833 127 50 1 61 If 25 667 had been used for Team A s overs total rather than 50 Team A would have finished the match with a positive match NRR and improved tournament NRR despite losing Similarly Team B with a worsened NRR despite winning 4 Side that bats second is bowled out side batting first therefore wins Team A bat first and set a formidable 295 5 off their complement of 50 overs Therefore for the tournament NRR calculations 295 runs and 50 overs are added to Team A s runs scored overs faced tally and Team B s runs conceded overs bowled tally Team B never get close being bowled out for 116 off 35 4 overs Therefore as they were bowled out 116 runs and 50 overs are added to Team A s runs conceded overs bowled tally and Team B s runs scored overs faced tally 5 Both sides are bowled out side batting first therefore wins Team A bat first and manage 117 off 24 overs on a difficult playing surface Team B fall agonizingly short reaching 112 off 23 3 overs In this case both teams get 50 overs both faced and bowled in the overs column for the season just as in example 1 6 The game ends in a tie Runs and overs are added as in the examples above with teams bowled out being credited with their full quota of overs Thus the match NRR will always be zero for both teams 7 Interrupted game with revised D L target In matches where revised targets are set due to interruptions which reduce the number of overs bowled those revised targets and revised overs are used to calculate the NRR for both teams For example Team A are dismissed for 165 in 33 5 overs Team B progresses to 120 0 but play is halted after 18 overs due to rain Six overs are lost and the target is reset to 150 which Team B reach comfortably after 26 2 overs Because the target was revised to 150 runs from 44 overs Team A s total is reset to 149 from 44 overs thus their RR 14944 3 39 displaystyle frac 149 44 approx 3 39 Team B s RR however is computed as normal 15026 33 5 70 displaystyle frac 150 26 33 approx 5 70 Computing the match NRR for Team A gives us 3 39 5 70 2 31 Team B s NRR is 5 70 3 39 2 31 8 Abandoned game recorded as No Result Abandoned games are not considered whatever the stage of the game at stoppage may be and the scores in such games are immaterial to NRR calculations 9 Abandoned game with retrospective D L result Team A score 254 runs from their 50 overs Team B have scored 172 4 from 30 overs when the match is abandoned According to 6 wickets and 20 overs in hand equates to 44 6 of resources so Team B has used 55 4 of its resources so their Par Score is 254 x 55 4 140 716 runs As they are ahead of this they are declared the winner Team A s RR Par Score for Team BOvers faced by Team B 14030 4 67 displaystyle frac text Par Score for Team B text Overs faced by Team B frac 140 30 approx 4 67 Team B s RR Runs scored by Team BOvers faced by Team B 17230 5 73 displaystyle frac text Runs scored by Team B text Overs faced by Team B frac 172 30 approx 5 73 Net Run Rate within a tournamentBasic example Most of the time in limited overs cricket tournaments there are round robin groups among several teams where each team plays all of the others Just as explained in the scenarios above the NRR is not the average of the NRRs of all the matches played it is calculated considering the overall rate at which runs are scored for and against within the whole group Let s take as an example South Africa s net run rate in the FOR South Africa scored Against India 254 runs for 6 wkts from 47 2 overs Against Sri Lanka 199 runs for 9 wkts from 50 overs Against England 225 runs for 7 wkts from 50 overs Against Kenya 153 runs for 3 wkts from 41 overs Against Zimbabwe 185 runs all out from 47 2 overs In the case of Zimbabwe because South Africa were all out before their allotted 50 overs expired the run rate is calculated as if they had scored their runs over the full 50 overs Therefore across the five games South Africa scored 1016 runs in a total of 238 overs and 2 balls i e 238 333 overs an average run rate of 1016 238 333 4 263 AGAINST Teams opposing South Africa scored India 253 for 5 wkts from 50 overs Sri Lanka 110 all out from 35 2 overs England 103 all out from 41 overs Kenya 152 all out from 44 3 overs Zimbabwe 233 for 6 wkts from 50 overs Again with Sri Lanka England and Kenya counting as the full 50 overs as they were all out the run rate scored against South Africa across the five games is calculated on the basis of 851 runs in a total of 250 overs an average run rate of 851 250 3 404 NET RUN RATE South Africa s final tournament NRR is therefore 4 263 3 404 0 859 Change in NRR through a tournament After match one In the above example of South Africa at the 1999 World Cup after their first match their tournament NRR was 25447 33 25350 displaystyle frac mbox 254 mbox 47 33 frac mbox 253 mbox 50 As Run Rate Runs scored Overs faced the runs scored by and against South Africa in each innings can be replaced in this formula by Run Rate x Overs faced They scored 254 runs from 47 33 overs a rate of 5 37 runs per over Therefore the total of 254 runs can be replaced by 5 37 runs per over x 47 33 overs Similarly the total of 253 runs conceded can be replaced by 5 06 runs per over x 50 overs 5 37 47 3347 33 5 06 5050 5 37 100 5 06 100 displaystyle left 5 37 times frac mbox 47 33 mbox 47 33 right left 5 06 times frac mbox 50 mbox 50 right left 5 37 times 100 right left 5 06 times 100 right After match two After their second match tournament NRR was 254 19947 33 50 253 11050 50 displaystyle frac mbox 254 199 mbox 47 33 50 frac mbox 253 110 mbox 50 50 which is the same as 25497 33 19997 33 253100 110100 displaystyle frac mbox 254 mbox 97 33 frac mbox 199 mbox 97 33 frac mbox 253 mbox 100 frac mbox 110 mbox 100 Making the same replacements for 254 and 253 as before and replacing 199 runs scored in match two with 3 98 runs per over x 50 overs and 110 runs conceded in match two with 2 20 runs per over x 50 overs this becomes 5 37 47 3397 33 3 98 5097 33 5 06 50100 2 20 50100 displaystyle left 5 37 times frac mbox 47 33 mbox 97 33 right left 3 98 times frac mbox 50 mbox 97 33 right left 5 06 times frac mbox 50 mbox 100 right left 2 20 times frac mbox 50 mbox 100 right 5 37 48 6 3 98 51 4 5 06 50 2 20 50 displaystyle left 5 37 times 48 6 right left 3 98 times 51 4 right left 5 06 times 50 right left 2 20 times 50 right After match three After their third match tournament NRR was 254 199 22547 33 50 50 253 110 10350 50 50 displaystyle frac mbox 254 199 225 mbox 47 33 50 50 frac mbox 253 110 103 mbox 50 50 50 i e 254147 33 199147 33 225147 33 253150 110150 103150 displaystyle frac mbox 254 mbox 147 33 frac mbox 199 mbox 147 33 frac mbox 225 mbox 147 33 frac mbox 253 mbox 150 frac mbox 110 mbox 150 frac mbox 103 mbox 150 Making the same replacements for 254 253 199 and 110 as before and replacing 225 runs scored in match three with 4 50 runs per over x 50 overs and 103 runs conceded in match three with 2 06 runs per over x 50 overs this becomes 5 37 47 33147 33 3 98 50147 33 4 50 50147 33 5 06 50150 2 20 50150 2 06 50150 displaystyle left 5 37 times frac mbox 47 33 mbox 147 33 right left 3 98 times frac mbox 50 mbox 147 33 right left 4 50 times frac mbox 50 mbox 147 33 right left 5 06 times frac mbox 50 mbox 150 right left 2 20 times frac mbox 50 mbox 150 right left 2 06 times frac mbox 50 mbox 150 right 5 37 32 1 3 98 33 9 4 50 33 9 5 06 33 3 2 20 33 3 2 06 33 3 displaystyle left 5 37 times 32 1 right left 3 98 times 33 9 right left 4 50 times 33 9 right left 5 06 times 33 3 right left 2 20 times 33 3 right left 2 06 times 33 3 right Tournament NRR as a weighted average Therefore tournament NRR can alternatively be thought of as the of the run rates scored in each match weighted by the lengths of the innings batted compared to the other innings batted minus the weighted average of the run rates conceded in each match weighted by the lengths of the innings bowled compared to the other innings bowled Each time another match is played the weights of the previous innings reduce and so the contributions of the previous innings to overall NRR reduce For example the 5 37 run rate achieved in match one had 100 weighting after match one 48 6 weighting after match two and 32 1 weighting after match three CriticismsNRR doesn t accurately reflect margins of victory as it takes no account of wickets lost In the language of teams have two resources with which to score runs overs and wickets However NRR takes into account only one of these overs faced it takes no account of wickets lost Therefore a team regarded as having a narrow victory can have a higher NRR than a team regarded as having a comfortable victory For example a team which just manages to win a close game with many overs to spare but with only one wicket in hand is likely to have a higher NRR than a team which paces itself to win comfortably with only a few overs in hand but many wickets For example in the New Zealand just beat Sri Lanka by bowling them out for 138 then reaching 139 9 from 36 3 overs giving them match NRR 139 36 5 138 50 1 05 Sri Lanka comfortably beat England by restricting them to 293 7 from 50 overs then reaching 297 3 from 47 1 overs giving them match NRR 297 47 167 293 50 0 44 England comfortably beat Australia by 48 runs by scoring 269 6 in 50 overs then restricting Australia to 221 9 in 50 overs giving them match NRR 269 50 221 50 0 96 This fact can encourage a team to play in an overly aggressive manner to maximise NRR by batting with next to no regard for preserving wickets when the required run rate alone seems low which can then put the team in danger of losing Tournament NRR calculation A team s batted and bowled overs in a match count differently to tournament NRR All overs batted in a tournament are given equal weighting when finding tournament NRR and all overs bowled in a tournament are also given equal weighting However when the total number of overs batted is different from the total number of overs bowled the weight for each over batted is different from the weight for each over bowled This means that batted overs and bowled overs in the same match count differently towards tournament NRR For example in the as New Zealand had batted 6 overs and bowled 7 overs against Scotland the runs they scored in each of the 20 overs batted against South Africa contributed 1 26th to their tournament NRR while the runs conceded in each of the 20 overs bowled against South Africa contributed only 1 27th In fact the effect of the higher weight for the batting overs was so strong that despite scoring fewer runs than South Africa from the same number of overs and hence having a negative match NRR and losing the match the net contribution of this match to New Zealand s tournament NRR was actually positive 127 26 128 27 is positive Each over in a match counts differently for the two teams Moreover if two teams in a tournament have different total numbers of overs batted or bowled then each innings in the match es between them will contribute differently towards their tournament NRRs For example in the South Africa batted for 40 overs in total in their two matches so their score of 128 from 20 overs against New Zealand contributed 128 40 3 20 to their tournament NRR whereas New Zealand bowled for 27 overs in total in their two matches so South Africa s score of 128 from 20 overs against them contributed 128 27 4 74 to New Zealand s tournament NRR As a team s NRR measures how many more runs it scores per over than it concedes the NRRs of all the teams in a league table should However because of this fact of each innings usually counting differently to the two teams tournament NRRs this rarely happens If the sum is positive this implies that overall more runs were scored per over than were conceded which is obviously impossible And if the sum is negative that less were scored than conceded The teams tournament NRRs will all sum to zero if all the teams have played one or zero matches or if every innings had exactly the same number of overs This happens sometimes with small league tables For example Group B in the featured three matches Five of the six innings had the full complement of 20 overs and in the sixth innings the team was bowled out which counts as the full complement of 20 overs The same score by two teams counts differently to tournament NRR If two teams make the same score from the same number of overs either in the same match or different matches this will count differently to their respective tournament NRR s if they have different total numbers of overs batted across the whole tournament For example in the Australia and Zimbabwe each scored 138 from 20 overs in one of their matches However as Australia batted for 14 5 overs in their other match this contributed 138 34 833 3 96 to their tournament NRR whereas as Zimbabwe batted for 19 5 overs in their other match this contributed 138 39 833 3 46 to their tournament NRR This is also the case if two teams concede the same score in the same match or different matches but have different total numbers of overs bowled in the tournament Tournament NRR can penalise teams which win batting second rather than first If one team batting first scores 250 from their 50 overs and another team batting second is set a target of 100 which it easily reaches in 20 overs then both sides have a batting run rate of 5 Therefore both sides will have the same match NRR all else being equal and should have the same contribution to tournament NRR However when it comes to calculating tournament NRR the first team s innings will count more heavily than the second team s as it was longer even though the second team achieved the same run rate and could potentially have reached the same total if it could have completed its 50 overs NRR may be manipulated A team may choose to artificially reduce their margin of victory as measured by NRR to gain an additional advantage by not disadvantaging their opponent too much For example in the final round of matches in the Australia needed to beat West Indies to progress to the Super Six stage but wanted to carry West Indies through with them to the Super Six rather than New Zealand This is because Australia would then have the additional points in the Super Six stage from beating West Indies in the group stage whereas they had lost to New Zealand in the group stage It was therefore to Australia s advantage to reduce their scoring rate and reduce their margin of victory as measured by NRR to minimise the negative impact of the match on West Indies NRR and therefore maximise West Indies chance of going through with them However this is also likely to be a possibility with alternatives to NRR This is similar to the way a narrow victory for one side in a game of may enable both sides to progress to the next stage e g NRR can be hard to understand NRR can be hard to understand and is often misunderstood For example Tournament NRR has been incorrectly explained as the sum of the NRRs from each match Alternatives to NRRA number of alternatives or modifications to NRR have been suggested Duckworth Lewis Use Tournament NRR as present but when a side batting second successfully completes the run chase use the to predict how many runs they would have scored with a full innings This means the calculation would be done on the basis of all innings being complete and so would remove the criticisms of NRR penalising teams which bat second and NRR not taking into account wickets lost However this does nothing to alter the fact that when matches are rain affected different matches and even two complete innings in one match can be different lengths long in terms of overs and so does nothing about some of the other criticisms above Therefore alternatively use Duckworth Lewis to predict the 50 over total for every innings less than this even for example if a match is reduced to 40 overs each and a side completes their 40 overs This would make every innings in the tournament the same length so would remove all the criticisms above However a side will bat differently less conservatively in a 40 over innings compared to a 50 over innings and so it is quite unfair to use their 40 over total to predict how many runs they could have scored in 50 overs Either way using Duckworth Lewis would mean relying on subjective modelling predictions which are opinions rather than actual performances which are facts Average of the match NRRs Calculate tournament NRR as the total or average of the individual match NRRs This would mean all matches have equal weighting no matter how long they were rather than all batted overs across the tournament having equal weighting and all bowled overs across the tournament having equal weighting This would remove the criticisms under the Tournament NRR calculation subheading above For example the different teams tournament NRRs would always sum to zero if the total of the individual match NRRs were used or if the average of the individual match NRRs were used and all teams had played the same number of games An example of when using this would have made a difference was the New Zealand and West Indies finished level on points Having scored a total of 723 runs from 201 overs and conceded 746 runs from 240 4 overs West Indies tournament NRR was 723 201 746 240 6667 0 50 However New Zealand had scored 817 runs from 196 1 overs and conceded 877 runs from 244 2 overs so their tournament NRR was 817 196 167 877 244 333 0 58 Therefore New Zealand progressed to the Super Six stage and West Indies were eliminated However with individual match NRRs of 0 540 0 295 0 444 5 525 and 0 530 the West Indies average match NRR was 1 04 and with individual match NRRs of 1 225 0 461 0 444 1 240 and 4 477 New Zealand s average match NRR was 0 90 Therefore West Indies average NRR was better than New Zealand s Ball difference Ball difference BD is the number of balls remaining at the point of victory For a team winning batting second BD would be the number of balls remaining For a team winning having batted first BD would be the number of balls between the precise delivery when the beaten team was outscored and the end of their innings either the end of the overs or until the team were all out For the losing team BD is the negative of the winning team s BD However like the current NRR calculation BD takes no account of wickets lost so can produce similarly unjust results In the example above from the 2013 Champions Trophy Group A New Zealand s narrow victory over Sri Lanka would have a BD of 81 whereas Sri Lanka s comfortable victory over England would have a BD of only 17 Also if a match is affected by the weather a side batting first can win having scored fewer runs if Duckworth Lewis increases the target for the team batting second and they overtake the first team s score but fail to reach the target It s not clear what BD would be in this scenario Head to head record or stage a play off match Split teams level on points using the results from the matches between them However this unfairly increases the importance of that one match and reduces the importance of other matches in the league when all matches in a league should be of equal value the team with the better head to head record will have a worse record against other teams Also the head to head record will not decide it if the game between them was a No result or if they played each other twice and won one game each Alternatively stage a play off match between the teams level on points However organising this at very short notice may be difficult or the teams may be in the middle of a league table with no promotion or relegation or progression at stake so there may be no appetite for a play off match These two methods both also run into difficulties when three or more teams are level on points ReferencesICC Playing Handbook 2013 14 Paragraph 21 9 2 Net Run Rate explained espncricinfo Net run rate NRR about com Why net run rate doesn t work espncricinfo NZ stutter to win after dominant bowling espncricinfo Australia pull fast one with go slow Rules bigbash com au Net Run Rate alternative SportTaco com Ball difference Ball difference Test Match Sofa A simple alternative to Net Run RateExternal linkshttp www espncricinfo com ci content page 429305 html http cricket butjazz com net run rate calculation how to calculate nrr